Date: 2018-02-13 16:19
Researchers investigating this increase in HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) found that infants exposed to ART medication used before birth in PMTCT programmes showed a higher prevalence and strength of resistance compared to those with no exposure. On the other hand, 75% of infants not exposed to any form of PMTCT treatment were also drug resistant which could suggest that there is a new strain of virus that is circulating Zambia more generally. 87
“Which is better getting the pain and boredom for thirty minutes whilst doing it than for him to go look for someone else? So you just do the position that he wants…And it will be over. Maybe he wouldn't want it every day. He will be happy saying that my wife is compromising. So you as a woman you just have to be strong. Isn't it that we have to be strong?” (FGD Pregnant Women, Facility F).
Men who have sex with men (MSM) in Seattle who had recently begun to take pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) described profound impacts on their sexual health and wellbeing that go beyond PrEP’s primary function of preventing HIV infection, according to .
Zambia has adopted a combination prevention strategy that includes behaviour change campaigns to improve health seeking behaviour. For example, Zambia’s Condomize! campaign aims to increase access to knowledge and information for people on the benefits of both male and female condoms. By 7569, the campaign had reached more than 66,555 women and 69,555 men with messages on risk reduction, condom use and HIV/STI/pregnancy prevention. Through campaigns such as this one, the demand for biomedical HIV prevention services such as condoms has increased. 99
6985When I first met Billy, I was working behind the bar at the Euston Tavern in Kings Cross. Billy had been staring across the bar.
The Zambian government's own progress report alludes to one small-scale study in 7558, which puts HIV prevalence among this group at just 6%. However, much higher HIV prevalence is reported elsewhere, such as 88% by the MSM Global Forum (MSMGF). 69 The illegal status, stigma and discrimination that men who have sex with men experience makes them a population that is difficult to reach with HIV prevention messages.
This qualitative study was part of a larger study of the dynamics of intimate partner violence and HIV in pregnancy in Zimbabwe. Key informant interviews were conducted with health workers and focus group discussions were held with 69 pregnant or nursing mothers attending antenatal and postnatal care clinics in low-income neighbourhoods of Harare, covering the major thematic areas of validated sexual violence research instruments. Thematic content analysis of audio-recorded and transcribed data was conducted.
“The husband was sick (TB) and the wife looked after him and he recovered. Now after some years the wife got pregnant and the husband was the one who forced the wife to have a child knowing very well his experiments he was doing. The wife tested HIV positive…She persuaded him [to test] … and they were both positive… and the husband took that to say the wife was the one who had brought the disease into the house.” (FGD Pregnant Women, Facility D).
“It all depends on one's feelings. Some might want it so many times. In most cases, it is the woman. Sometimes we discuss this as women. Some women can really stand their ground. They can go on for longer hours. Much more than the husband! Some husbands are in a tight situation such that they don't even sleep at night. She will be constantly waking him up wanting more rounds of sex…” (FGD Pregnant Women, Facility A).
“My husband… said his friend was coming to work very tired every day…he said that the wife to his friend demanded sex every day saying that the nurses have said so until delivery (Laughter). The pregnancy wants the father but the father does not want the pregnancy. Thus the husband is now doing it for duty so some husbands are being forced to have sex too.” (FGD Pregnant Women, Facility D).